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What Is

Working Capital?

Learn the basics of financial management with the help of experts to guide you in every step.

How To Calculate?

Learn to calculate working capital under experts while we also provide you with the right tools to do it online.

Why Is it Important?

Understand the importance of working capital in finance management to manage your own net worth and working capital.

Negative Working Capital

Find out the negative impacts of poor financial management and inaccurate working capital management.

William E. McNair

The founder and CEO of GoNetWorth and a professional business analyst.

Tim C. Cobb

The working capital management expert and a financial advisor for the biggest names.

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The Formula Of Working Capital

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Latest From Blog

Fixed Capital
Fixed Capital
Jill C. Cleary

Difference Between Fixed Capital And Working Capital And Certain Facts You Need To Know About These Types

Every company needs a certain amount of capital for it to thrive or start. Capital is nothing but a certain amount of money that needs to be put into the business for it to be run. So there are broadly two types of capital: fixed and working capital.

Fixed capital is the capital that is not tradable by the company or business. It is the fixed amount that is set aside for the fundamental necessity of the company or business. For example, if the owner of the company owns the land, the business is conducted on, that is fixed capital because it is blocked and cannot be spent. However, this does not mean that it is of no value because, without it, the business cannot be conducted. Similarly, machines owned by the company also follow the same principle, since work cannot be done without them.


Working capital, on the other hand, is the liquid money in the company. It involves the money that can be spent by the company and is used for running the company or business. This includes capital like the salary payable to the employees, short term expenses of the company etc.


Working capital is the liquid money that can be spent by the company for its day to day operations. It is not set aside, it is calculated, and operational costs vary with the amount of money put into it. However, fixed capital is not so; it is fixed and cannot be liquidated quickly.


Working capital can be converted into money efficiently for the use of the company. In contrast, fixed capital is not readily available as liquid cash, because it is necessary for the company or business in the fixed investment form and is not required to be converted.


Accounting Period

Working capital offers benefits for the company for one or less than one accounting period. In comparison, fixed capital provides operational benefits for the company that extends more than one accounting period.


Working capital has a concise term in business and is temporary, while fixed capital is a long term investment that is essential for the company.



Working capital is consumed by the business and is spent according to requirement. However, fixed capital is not spent. Instead, it is used by the business for running it. Essentially, what this means is, working capital is consumed while the fixed capital is not.

working capital
Jill C. Cleary

What are the types of working capital?

Working capital of a company refers to the flow of liquidity in a company. The current assets vs the current liabilities result in a capital that is required by a company to run its process smoothly. It is like a fuel that gears your business to run placidly. An insufficient working capital remarks the onset of a failed business whereas otherwise, improves the standard of the company and potential for the overall growth of the company. There are different types of working capitals:

Permanent working capital

It is the minimum amount of money that is required, or the company holds to run smoothly. It can also be termed as fixed working capital and varies from one company to another. If there is a shortfall in this money, then you’re forced to apply for a loan.

Permanent working capital

Temporary working capital

It is also called fluctuating or varying working capital. The difference between your net and permanent working capital is the temporary working capital. It is directly related to the sales and production of a company. For instance, if you own a company that manufactures an umbrella, then to meet the customer needs, you start producing and selling your goods in the offseason. This requires extra funds and money to meet capital needs. It is the extra cash needed to run a company during off-seasons and exceptional cases.

Gross and Net working capital

Gross capital is the investment a company makes to buy the assets required for the company, whereas net capital is the surplus of assets over liabilities. When calculated, a positive sign in the numbers indicates the company’s ability to meet the obligations, while the latter implies otherwise.

Gross and Net working capital

Negative working capital

This is a negative sign for the company and is soon expected to reach a financial crisis. The situation arises when the current assets is lower than the current liabilities, i.e. cash input is less than the cash output.

Reserve working capital

A business is always working under uncertainty or awaiting the risk of uncertain events. In such cases, reserve working capital is the money that is borrowed or loaned to meet the requirements of the company, for a short period.

Regular working capital:

It is the amount of money that is usually well maintained with the right balance between the current assets and liabilities, for the normal functioning of a company on a daily basis.

Seasonal working capital

Remember the point we discussed the offseason manufacturing and sales? Seasonal working capital also finds a similarity and falls under the same roof. It is the money required to ensure the smooth running of business during the offseason. It demands for extra hours of work and hustle.

Seasonal working capital

Special working capital

Sometimes a company might be forced to launch new schemes, marketing strategies and much more, to increase their business or aim for higher growth in general. During such situations, special working capital comes in need. It provides the necessary money to upscale a business while ensuring the overall structure to run smoothly.

Working capital
Top things
Jill C. Cleary

Top things you need to know about Net Working capital

NWC is the short form for Net Working Capital. It is the amount required to meet all the short term expenses of the company, which includes the short term debts, everyday expenses, inventory and many more. It can also be termed as the difference between the current assets and the current liabilities, reflected in a balance sheet. Net Working capital is crucial for a company, to ensure that the company runs smoothly without any hurdles, for the coming year and meet all its financial obligations.
There is no hard and fast rule as to how much money a company should hold in stock to run smoothly. It depends on the liabilities of the company. For example, if you consider the case of a retail business, it is usually high during the holidays and certain times of the year. Hence, during those seasons the company’s expenses will spike than the offseason.

NWC Calculation

The calculation of a company’s working capital depends on its assets and liabilities. Current assets are the expenses the company holds – or in simple terms, that is the cash the company makes. Obligations, on the other hand, are the cash the company has to spend on payroll, taxes, rent and many others. For obvious reasons, the current liabilities should exceed the current assets. Inability to do so signals weak liquidity.
NWC= Current Assets – Current Liabilities
Working Capital ratio indicates the ratio of a businesses’ financial status. Formula for calculation:
Current liabilities/ current assets
If the ratio is above 2, then there is good liquidity and assets can be converted to cash. It ensures the companies stability.
If the ratio is between 1.2 to 2, then it remarks good liquidity of the company, although there is still room for improvement.
 If the ratio is anything below the numbers as mentioned above, then it indicates a red flag, which requires immediate attention, to prevent the company from going under.

Why do you need working capital?

Although the reasons are pretty evident on this one, there are two particular scenarios when a company desperately needs working capital:
In case of crises shortly, to meet the financial needs of the company as well as the employees.
If a company is aiming for a big project, then it requires funding. Taking a loan is another option, but the procedure takes lots of time. Hence a good liquid flow in the company is right for its growth.

Ways to increase your capital


If you’re investing in a big project, the last thing you want is the project to halt due to monetary shortage. To prevent scenarios like that, you can request for an upfront deposit.
Set ground rules to speed up the money collected from their client companies or clients in general. This is the main reason a company can go under.
Ideal loans like the Small Business Administration (SBA) loans that are especially created to aid a company during the financial crisis.

Jill C. Cleary

Top advantages of Net working capital and why it is needed

Working capital is extremely crucial for the company’s survival. It is more like a strategy that is employed by business owners and managers to ensure the smooth working of the company and also retain its employees during crucial times. More often than not, it is also considered as a metric to define the growth and success of a company. Here are the top 5 advantages of maintaining adequate working capital:


Not every company or a business is always prepared for crucial moments or unexpected crisis. However, if the company masters in maintaining adequate working capital, then it will help the company during solvency and provide cash flow interminably..



Every bank requires a business history before they can provide loans to companies, especially the ones struggling to make it to the top. Maintaining an adequate working capital will have a good impression on the bank, regarding the company and will also ease out the lending process.


No matter what business it is, it requires raw materials to create a product. In the case of sufficient funds and capital, it ensures the company a constant and steady supply of raw materials. This will also not hamper the production rate during the crisis.


Constant cash flow not only benefits the sales and production of a company but also upholds the morale amongst its employees. Regular wages to the employees will build trust and a sense of faithfulness in them.



Maintaining regular cash flow is suitable for a business to sustain, but if you want to grow and reach the top, then there has to be extra work, both from the employees and financially. A financially strong company can aspire for building significant projects and also expands its clients.

Why it is needed

Working capital is crucial for any company’s growth and sustainability. It is also a measure of how well the company is doing in terms of growth and financial aspects. The key to maintaining a business and prevailing is to have a good cash inflow that will not only keep your business in the market but also help in growth with a streamlined process.


A company requires regular cash inflow for various reasons:

To pay a building’s rent
Payslips of the employees
Cover uncertain costs
Maintenance of the entire arena; and many more
Usually, a separate department in a business is set up to maintain the cash input and output of a company. The department is responsible for scrutinizing the company’s growth by maintaining a record of the day to day expenses of the company (assets) and the money required to fulfil the company’s liabilities. An adequate working capital not only ensures the stability of a company but also becomes a significant part of the company’s profits and growth. Productive working capital is required not only to fulfil the obligations but also to ensure the system runs smoothly in terms of crisis or layoffs.

Jill C. Cleary

How Do You Calculate Net Working Capital?

Every business will have a constant cash flow either as profit or loss, but an ideal company will have to garner enough money to stay stable through the initial stages to reach the expected success. Many factors come into play to determine the current status of a company, and net working capital is one such aspect that defines the liquidity. It is defined as the difference between a company’s current assets and current liabilities.

The value of NWC will decide a company’s ability to stay debt-free for a short period in the future. A positive value will indicate that the company has enough funds to pay off its current financial obligations and make new investments. If your company has current assets of around $60,000 and current liabilities of $15,000, the NWC will be $45,000. Although it is quite simple to calculate the net working capital of a company, if you are an entrepreneur, you must check the basics of NWC, its calculation steps, pros and cons, and steps to increase it.

Formula to Calculate Net Working Capital Formula

Data about the net working capital should be produced on a balance sheet annually to have a clear picture of the current state of your company. Follow the formula to calculate your company’s value.

Net Working Capital = (Current Assets) – (Current Liabilities)

That is the short formula for calculating the NWC value, in which, the current assets and current liabilities will include several variables.

Current Assets

Short-term assets on your balance sheet that have to be converted to cash in a year are the current assets of a company. Cash and cash equivalents are the typical constituents of current assets, which include short-term government bonds, money market funds, treasury bills, and commercial paper. Inventories, marketable securities, and accounts receivables also make for the current assets. If your company has cash and cash equivalents of $20,000, inventories worth $5000, and accounts receivable of $6000, the total current assets can be found by summing up all these values.

Current Liabilities

Short-term financial obligations that are due in one year are the current liabilities of a company. The major constituents of current liabilities are lines of credit, short-term loans, accrued liabilities, accounts payable, and debts coming from credit cards, vendor notes, trade debts. Small business loans and commercial real estate loans are current portions of long-term debts, and they are also a part of the current liabilities. When your company has accounts payable of $3,000, short-term loan of $20,000, and accrued liabilities of about $5,000, the total current liability value is the result of summing up all these numbers.


This way, you can calculate the current assets and current liabilities of your company. This can then be subtracted to find the net working capital value.

Net Working Capital = (Cash and Cash Equivalents) + (Trade Accounts Receivable) + (Inventory) + (Marketable Investments) – (Trade Accounts Payable)

By simply substituting these values to the formula, the NWC value of your company can be found out. The net working capital value could be zero, negative, or as meagre a positive value to be of no much use to the company. This value can be increased by selling long-term assets, increasing inventory turnover, or refinancing short-term debt with long-term obligations.

Net Working Capital
Working Capital
Jill C. Cleary

What Is Net Working Capital?

Owning a company will introduce you to many different facets of the world that you haven’t witnessed. As you manage your business, several such aspects make up for the complete picture of your success. Net working capital would be one such term that you must have come across that has an integral part in your business. As you sit through the accounting of your company’s monetary transactions and deals, you will surely have to calculate the net working capital to determine the current state of the business.

In the simplest terms, Net Working Capital (NWC) can be defined as the difference between the current assets and current liabilities of a company. It is considered as the record of the company’s liquidity, fund operations, and the ability of the company to meet short-term obligations. Having a positive net working capital balance is the ideal position for any company, meaning that they must have more current assets than liabilities. Let us have a closer look at net working capital and its relevance in a company’s life.


Importance of Net Working Capital

As mentioned earlier, by having a clear idea of a business’s NWC will help you gain more knowledge about the liquidity of the funds of a company and if they have enough funds to pay off the current short-term obligations. If a company has net working capital to be zero or greater, the business is quite stable to cover the debts. All companies should have enough capital all year round to cover such short-term bills.

Having a large capital figure puts the business at a more prepared and established state to remain stable even when they have existing obligations. Net working capital can be used to compare the change of figures over time and build a trend in your business’s liquidity accordingly. It can imply how well your company can grow in the future; whether the current state will continue longer and improve or decline. By having significant capital reserves, a business may be able to scale its operations easily and swiftly.

Improving Net Working Capital


Some changes can be made to the operations of a company to improve its liquidity, and consequently, its NWC value. Shortening your billing cycle and ensuring frequent payments by the customers can be made possible by changing your payment terms. Make sure that you follow up with the clients just when the invoice is due. That can help you with collecting the late payment more quickly. One of the major steps taken by many of the companies is of returning the unused inventory to the vendors. By doing so, the companies will receive a refund for the cost of the items in it; be it machinery or other equipment. Another small step to improve working capital is of lengthening the payment period for the vendors. You can do that only if they allow you to, without charging any fees for the late payment.

Buy Bitcoin
Jill C. Cleary

5 Best Forex Brokers to Buy Bitcoin in 2020

Forex is one form of trading that people are now obsessed about and is growing in popularity so much so that it even surpasses the revenue generation of stocks. The currency pair that traders use to make profits keep differing in their value as the economic conditions change. If you are an avid forex trader, you might very well know how the market functions and what you need to stay stable in the trade. You surely have to apply specific strategies, and above that, you need to have a proper approach towards the trade. Now that even Bitcoin is being traded on forex, the scope is broadening.

Technology is taking over the world economy with the diffusion of digital currency into forex being the latest talk both in the crypto-verse in the exchanges. Many forex brokers are now offering cryptocurrency trading over their platform and familiarizing forex trade to more people around the globe. As a new decade is here and everything is being reviewed, there is a high demand for a thorough study on what are the possibilities of Bitcoin in forex trading. 2020 is supposed to bring more exciting innovations to kickstart a new era of technology. Let us now have a look at some of the forex brokers that are offering Bitcoin trade in their platform.


eToro is considered as the best forex broker for overall crypto trading. It is a copy trading platform which is easy to use and understand. eToro offers both physical cryptocurrency trading and CFDs. The proprietary code for decentralized exchange has also been made open-sourced by eToro to add to the launch of an individual crypto wallet. With the trade of more than a hundred digital asset pairs being offered, eToro is the best pick in 2020.



This globally trusted brand has enabled the cryptocurrency holders to trade non-CFDs of the largest digital assets such as Bitcoin, Litecoin, and Ethereum. Swissquote is being regulated and publicly-traded in some of the biggest market centers in the world. This is also a good pic for overall crypto trading.


Many favorable contract specifications, flexible market requirements, and weekend training are offered along with the eight CFD crypto pairs for trade on IG. The ten largest tokens are represented by their performance on a CFD called Crypto 10, which provides the passive investors with opportunities to invest in the highly prospective future of crypto without the need for a trade of individual token pairs. You can opt for IG if you prefer flexible trading.


CFD traders are offered a lot of opportunities to trade over 16 digital asset pairs with the weekend trading to add to the potential of XTB. This respectable cryptocurrency offering XTB is backed by competitive pricing. You can go for XTB for its great features, among which the customer service is the most impressive one.



Forex.com offers traders with eight top crypto assets to buy and sell, and competitive pricing in terms of its overnight financing and spreads over large-cap assets such as Bitcoin and Ethereum.

Main Components
Jill C. Cleary

Four Main Components Of Working Capital

Before we get into the components of working management, we need to first understand what working capital is. Working capital is the liquid money that can be spent by the company. It is the money that is not fixed like the land on which the business is done, the equipment and machines required for the business etc.
Working capital is, therefore, the capital used for paying salaries of employees, conducting the day-to-day operations of the company etc.

Now that you know what working capital is, the four components of working capital are given below.

Cash Management

Cash exists in two forms: near cash and ready cash. Ready cash is the money that is readily available in the form of notes, coins, bank balances etc. Near cash is the cash that is in the form of marketable securities, treasury bills etc. It is the responsibility of the fund manager to maintain adequate cash balances so that the firm’s liquidity remains strong. There are several models of cash management that a fund manager can use to implement cash management effectively like the Baumol Model, Miller-Orr Model, etc.


Receivables Management

Receivable is a term used to describe any amount of money that a person outside the company owes to it. Account receivable refers to the number of debtors owing money to the firm or company. The requirement of working capital is influenced by two main factors: the debt collection policy and the total number of accounts receivable. The credit policy also has a significant impact, but it must be noted that the management of credit policies should make considerably higher profits than the amount required for receivables management.

Inventory Management

Inventory management directly affects the earnings of the shareholders of the company, and hence is a major part of the working capital management. The objectives of effective inventory management is as follows: maintaining the smooth flow of raw materials for production and sales, and minimisation of investment in inventory. The reconciliation of these conflicting objectives is the job of a finance manager, and the level of inventory needs to be calculated accordingly. This analysis is done using stock analysis, ABC analysis etc.

Accounts Payable Management

Accounts Payable

Payables refer to the creditors and investors in the company and therefore is arguably the most important of all the management of all. Cash management and payable management are very closely related, and so its effective management leads to an enhancement of the company’s reputation as well as a steady supply of materials to a firm.

Networking Capital
Jill C. Cleary

What is the Networking Capital Formula? Top 5 Things You Didn’t Know About Capital Formula


The liquidity calculation that measures a company’s position to pay off its existing liabilities with the existing assets is termed as net working capital. The net worth capital formula is focused on liabilities that should be repaid by the end of the current financial year like accounts payable, trade debts, vendor notes etc. much like the working capital ratio. Simply put, the net worth capital formula is the company’s ability to meet short term obligations and fund the normal functioning of a business.

There are different methods to calculate the net worth capital, some excluding cash and debt, and some including inventory accounts payable and accounts receivable. According to what the analyst wants to include or exclude, there are different methods for the calculation of Net Worth Capital.


Net Worth Capital (NWC) = Existing Assets – Existing Liabilities


Net Worth Capital (NWC) = Existing Assets (less cash) – Existing Liabilities (less debt)


Net Worth Capital (NWC) = Accounts Receivable – Accounts Payable + Inventory

The first formula in the formulae mentioned above is the most broadly defined formula, with the next two becoming increasingly narrower depending on what is to be included.

What Current Assets & Liabilities Are

Typically, the current assets that are considered while formulating net worth capital are cash, short term investments, accounts receivable and inventory.
The current liabilities usually include accrued expenses, accounts payable, customer deposits, taxes, trade debt etc.

Long Term Assets

The company will be forced to use its long term assets if it cannot meet its current liabilities with current assets. This can have serious implications, leading to severe financial and economic problems within the company due to reduced sales and operation.

Some analysts also choose to include the current section of long term debt in the current liabilities section, which makes sense, because even though the current debt may come from a long term obligation, it may have to be repaid in the current year.

Long Term

What Net Worth Capital Is Used For

A positive net worth capital could show investors and creditors that the company has enough assets to pay off its current debts. A very high NWC can also mean that the company has enough assets to expand further without taking on additional debt from other investors. A negative NWC indicates that the company has more debts than it can afford to have. It means that its current assets are not matching up to their current liabilities and that if this continues, they may have to sell their long term assets to overcome their current debts. So obviously, a positive NWC is what a company should be aiming for.

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